I agree with you that much of the industry is flawed, but what about an MLM that has a service rather than a product such as electricity. It’s not like that could go out of style or that once you buy it you don’t need it again or that your monthly supply is too much and you’re going to stop the monthly subscriptions. I can honestly say that I cannot stand most MLM companies because regardless what you believe or how much you like the product, if you have to try to convince someone else to use it then inevitably the system is flawed and eventually your residuals will dry up. Electricity though, that’s different in my opinion, no one has to convince me to use it, it just comes by default. Find me an MLM that is not selling so much as showing someone an alternative to what they already have to pay and I’d be interested.

For more information, John Oliver did a fantastic segment about the horrors of MLMs. The 2016 documentary, Betting on Zero, investigates the allegations that MLMs are nothing but legal pyramid schemes. This article also does a wonderful job of breaking down the reasons why MLMs are doomed to failure. I encourage anyone who is thinking about signing up for an MLM to watch these.
The main website a lot of people use when they are online is social media. These websites are where you can sit there and talk to anyone around the world that you know, and chances are that most people you know have an account on these kinds of things. You’ll want to make sure you do some looking into making a business account, because marketing through your personal profile may not do so well for you. Social media sites are free to use, but they also have ways you can pay for ads that go out to people.

How MLM companies are NOT considered Pyramid organizations is beyond me! They are all scams by the very nature of their organization structure. Those who start or get in early benefit directly from the efforts of those beneath them, forever. Not to mention the fact that most product sold through any of these MLM organization’s is to the dealer network itself. The top dogs are making money regardless as long as there is new blood coming in. And the best way to keep new blood coming in is to incentivize those at the lower middle and below to continue recruiting to build “a network of their own”. And those on the verge of “breaking through” who have already invested a small fortune in products along the way that are sitting on their pantry shelves NEED to keep recruiting. The very thing that differentiates a Pyramid scheme from an MLM is that an MLM sells an actual product. That is it. It doesn’t determine who that product is sold to as it should since we know that most product is sold to the worker bees and not to the general public for long.
Although each MLM company dictates its own specific financial compensation plan for the payout of any earnings to their respective participants, the common feature that is found across all MLMs is that the compensation plans theoretically pay out to participants only from two potential revenue streams. The first is paid out from commissions of sales made by the participants directly to their own retail customers. The second is paid out from commissions based upon the sales made by other distributors below the participant who have recruited those other participants into the MLM; in the organizational hierarchy of MLMs, these participants are referred to as one's down line distributors.[5]
It was an absolute pleasure doing business with you. I was very pleased with the speed that you delivered your product. We ordered a specific quantity of addresses but Listguy was very generous in supplying 5,000 more addresses that we had requested at no further cost. We were able to acquire the addresses we needed in the time frame we required. I would definitely recommend Listguy!

An example of a high-profile multi-level marketing company defending its practices is Herbalife Ltd., a manufacturer and distributor of weight-loss and nutritional products with more than 500,000 distributors. Although the FTC had been investigating Herbalife, it was activist investor William Ackman who shed a national spotlight on the company by shorting $1 billion of the company’s stock in 2013. Ackman accused the company of operating a pyramid scheme and backed his allegations with a bet the company’s stock price would fall under the weight of the scam.  
A good network marketing company rewards leadership, just like any structured business.  Most businesses have a pyramid structure where the people at the top, ie. CEOs, SVPs, VPs, are the highest paid people in the company.  The unique opportunity you have with a Network Marketing   business is that you START at the top of your business, and your income will be dependent on how large of a team you build “below” you.

Is Home Depot going to run a class on how to make submarine sandwiches? No. Makes no sense, right? Would people be attracted to that? Like that one I might attend. I like submarine sandwiches, they’re pretty good. That I might attend but I’m going to go there and be like why am I in a building supply company? I’m not going to buy anything. It doesn’t make sense.
If you recruit a distributor who advances to the final step and breaks away from your group, what happens to your commissions? Yes, your total group volume will take a hit, because you’ve lost one of your best recruits. However, most companies will provide you with a bonus commission, referred to as an override commission, for creating breakaway legs (or recruits that end up breaking away, forming their own group).
The cons of mlm are that most people getting into mlm don’t understand mlm. They apply the incorrect philosophy and it becomes a recipe for disaster. I see dozens of people monthly that join a mlm, don’t work and don’t yield any results and as a result, leave with a bad taste. But with correct leadership that problem could be averted. That is precisely why I love my company. It has the best leadership (in my opinion) and they properly train their agents.
Leverage by definition refers to the opportunity to manipulate eny external effort or resources for your own gain. For example, if you loaned a certain amount from the bank and invest it into a certain profitable business, you can apply the principle of leverage by using your profit to pay your debt while gaining more. Certainly, any form of profit being generated comes directly or indirectly from the opportunty to leverage into something else outside from you.
The first wave of MLMs were the likes of Avon, which was founded in 1886, and used the door-to-door model for selling perfume. From then and up until the middle of the last century, many women did not have the means to sample products and shop at a department store — or, in the case of African American women, they were simply not allowed to enter the store at all. And they certainly didn’t have the means to start their own business and earn a real income.
Walter J. Carl stated in a 2004 Western Journal of Communication article that "MLM organizations have been described by some as cults (Butterfield, 1985),[51] pyramid schemes (Fitzpatrick & Reynolds, 1997),[52] or organizations rife with misleading, deceptive, and unethical behavior (Carter, 1999),[53] such as the questionable use of evangelical discourse to promote the business (Höpfl & Maddrell, 1996),[54] and the exploitation of personal relationships for financial gain (Fitzpatrick & Reynolds, 1997)".[52][55] In China, volunteers working to rescue people from the schemes have been physically attacked.[56]
People who wonder why network marketing doesn’t work have likely also never joined the best MLM for them at the time or had great upline support and a team around them to get through the often frustrating first few months. Opportunities abound – even publicly traded multi-level marketing companies, who you would think are these huge businesses that give you no attention, have small teams and wonderful leaders to join. It’s just a matter of finding the top teams in the company you’re looking at.
Is Home Depot going to run a class on how to make submarine sandwiches? No. Makes no sense, right? Would people be attracted to that? Like that one I might attend. I like submarine sandwiches, they’re pretty good. That I might attend but I’m going to go there and be like why am I in a building supply company? I’m not going to buy anything. It doesn’t make sense. 

Many MLM companies do generate billions of dollars in annual revenue and hundreds of millions of dollars in annual profit. However, the profits of the MLM company are accrued at the detriment to the majority of the company's constituent workforce (the MLM participants). Only some of said profit is then significantly shared with individual participants at the top of the MLM distributorship pyramid. The earnings of those top few participants is emphasized and championed at company seminars and conferences, thus creating an illusion of how one can potentially become financially successful if they become a participants in the MLM. This is then advertised by the MLM company to recruit more distributors to participate in the MLM with a false anticipation of earning margins which are in reality merely theoretical and statistically improbable.[14]
Below is a screen shot of a program called Zennoa which l reviewed and was in the pre-launch stage. Google did not even know that program exists and ANY website could have ranked for that search term. There is really no point in wasting valuable time flogging dead horses. There is no need for another review of Empower Network, Vemma or those MLM ancestors … LOL.
"Your business opportunity leads continue to get better! The more I use your services, the more dollars I earn! My experience with your services started about 3 months back when I was searching for some reliable and genuine leads for my home based business. After reading through your site, I decided to take a chance and order some leads. But BOY! I never expected the results so swift and so good. The leads were turning into sales in no time and I had to order another fresh list. I have been ordering almost weekly since then and as expected, this time too, the conversion rate is tremendous. I'm surely planning to buy another list at the earliest."

It is almost impossible to stop the industry because of the amount of investors and lobbyists who are profiting from them. “During the Obama administration, the Federal Trade Commission made its biggest-ever effort to curb this industry when last summer it slapped nutritional supplement–seller Herbalife with a $200 million fine and, as part of a settlement with Herbalife, demanded it restructure its business so that it would “start operating legitimately,” as FTC Chairwoman Edith Ramirez put it.” (Slate) The current administration under President Donald Trump will be a completely different story and may very well be a boon for the MLM industry. Let’s start with Trump himself. In 2009, he licensed his name to an MLM, which eventually went bankrupt, along with many of his participants. Many in Trump’s cabinet have strong ties to MLMs as well: Betsey DeVos (whose husband is the president of Amway — by the way, DeVos family has donated $200 million to the Republican party over the years), Ben Carson, Carl Icahn (a billionaire who is also a major investor in Herbalife and holds five board seats at the company), and Charles Herbster. 

Great job on the top 25 MLMs. Really like what you’re doing for the industry as a whole. Your analysis is spot on. However, a closer look at retention rates for each company might give you another perspective on the value proposition of any given company. As a Doterra Wellness Advocate we are told by our corporate execs that we have a 65% retention rate with customers repurchasing the product within 3 months. And that if we based it on the industry standard of 12 months our retention would go up to 85%. I’m told that this is unprecedented in network marketing. So I’m believing that Doterra is succeeding because its selling a product that works and that users and word-of-mouth drive the business in the long run.
Hello Network Marketer, Tired of old, worn out, over-priced network marketing leads that cost you hard-earned money… but leave you without new distributors? Tired of friends and family avoiding your calls? If you’re like most distributors I know, time and money are valuable to you. You can’t waste it on cheap, worn out recycled leads. Nor do you want to chase your friends and family. Otherwise, you’ll become a charter member of the NFL Club… No Friends Left!
I spent about 3 years selling Amway back in the 70’s. There was a lot of hype but I made enough money to achieve several of my more modest financial goals. I went on to use some of what I learned to make extra money in various ventures and eventually started a small business out of my home. The business grew until mainstream retailers began offering the same product I was selling at comparable prices. The MLM as a learning tool has some value as long as the product is decent. This MLM ranking is a good way to attract attention and I am curious about Your service. I am selective about what I spend my time and effort on.
Thanks for the list. As with anything it’s a matter of opinion and you have to put in the work to see results. If you’re just doing parties in your hometown, that’s probably not going to work. With all the tools you have in the Internet you can really promote whatever it is you’re selling. If you want to be successful with a good company, you have to look at it as a business and roll up your sleeves.

MaryAnne, I would recommend finding a product that you LOVE, a product that you feel can benefit the people around you and who you feel integrity with. You want to find their products useful so that you will feel good about buying them every month and want to share them with other. It is a business, but you also want to be able to have fun with it too


With the advent of internet marketing has come a whole new science of selling online making the acquisition of those elusive network marketing leads just a little bit easier. Easy access to the internet for both the marketer and, much more importantly, their potential customers, has forced a whole new set of ideas to the forefront. Here are just a few of the options that are now available.
Notice their area code and make a comment, google the area code if you need to. “Hey, I see your area code is Dallas, is that where you are from or is that where you live?” Awesome, I have friends that live there, or, I’ve always wanted to visit, or, I was just there for a team event not too long ago” Say something that sounds natural to loosen it up a bit.
As non-employees, participants are not protected by legal rights of employment law provisions. Instead, salespeople are typically presented by the MLM company as "independent contractors" or "independent business owners". However, participants do not possess a business in the traditional legal sense, as the participants do not hold any tangible business assets or intangible business goodwill able to be sold or purchased in a sale or acquisition of a business. These are the property of the MLM company.
The Isreali immigrant brothers turned entrepreneurs behind Seacret Direct managed to take a cliche mall kiosk (you know, the ones that bother the crap out of you while you’re trying to shop) and turn it into a multi-million dollar global direct selling ccompany. Skincare products are pretty yawn-worthy nowadays, but Seacret’s dead sea products come with a 5,000 year history and a lot of fanfare.
Ready, Set, Leads is a decent company. Good prices and good support. Of course find a couple others, but you can find them here. Test one company at a time. Probably enough leads to last you 7–10 days, and then switch companies the next week. After about a month, you should have a good idea the primary leads company you want to work with for your network marketing business.
Not only are “home businesses” or “MLM’s” very interesting, they are successful. Many of the longest standing organizations in this country have this business model. MLM is a marketing strategy in which the sales force is compensated not only for sales they personally generate, but also for the sales of others they recruit, creating a downline of distributors and a hierarchy of multiple levels of compensation. Most commonly, the salespeople are expected to sell products directly to consumers by means of relationship referrals and word of mouth marketing. Sounds legit right – so why the bad press?
I’d like to point out a few things: statistically something like 96% of businesses fail within the first 5-10 years, which is a much more impactful loss, both financially and time wise, than the few hundred dollars one puts into whatever product they’re using in MLM. So realistically the success rate as a “self employed business owner” with MLM is probably a bit better than it is with launching a traditional business, or at least consistent with it. It takes discipline and tenacity that many people don’t have- that’s why they chose to remain employees in the first place.

If you want quick leads to your business opportunity as of yesterday, why not send a quick request. You just need to visit the members list, choose target members and send them a message. Remember, you can categorized members according to their countries of origin. So you can go for Australian, UK, USA … business opportunity leads without having to sift through hundreds of countries that you are not interested in.
I spent about 3 years selling Amway back in the 70’s. There was a lot of hype but I made enough money to achieve several of my more modest financial goals. I went on to use some of what I learned to make extra money in various ventures and eventually started a small business out of my home. The business grew until mainstream retailers began offering the same product I was selling at comparable prices. The MLM as a learning tool has some value as long as the product is decent. This MLM ranking is a good way to attract attention and I am curious about Your service. I am selective about what I spend my time and effort on.
Multi-level marketing businesses sell a variety of products from vitamins to vacuum cleaners. Starting a MLM business makes you responsible for not only selling but also recruiting a sales team. Keeping your employees motivated is a challenge. You also have to create a payment structure that rewards salespeople sufficiently to keep them happy and at the same time grow earnings for the company.

Networking, as it used to be called, is a pretty thankless task. The conventional approach to networking was to start with the network of friends and colleagues that you already have; friends and family, your existing clients, your contacts at the squash club and so on. Most people feel uncomfortable pitching to friends and family, unless you have an unbeatable idea or concept, but if that was the case, then lead generation would not be a problem

Carl Rehnborg is credited as having started the multi-level marketing industry back in the 1930s. After learning about the benefits of dietary supplements in China, Rehnborg came back to the United States and started a company called The California Vitamin Company, which was later rebranded to Nutrilite. Six years after that rebranding, Rehnborg reorganized the company’s structure and the way it sold products into what we know as MLM today.
Melinda F. Emerson, known to many as SmallBizLady is one of America's leading small business experts. As a seasoned entrepreneur, professional speaker, and small business coach, she develops audio, video and written content to fulfill her mission to end small business failure. As CEO of Quintessence Multimedia, Melinda educates entrepreneurs and Fortune 500 companies on subjects including small business start-up, business development and social media marketing. Forbes Magazine named her #1 woman for entrepreneurs to follow on Twitter. She hosts #SmallBizChat Wednesdays on Twitter 8-9pm ET for emerging entrepreneurs. She also publishes a resource blog http://www.succeedasyourownboss.com Melinda is also bestseller author of Become Your Own Boss in 12 months; A Month-by-Month Guide to a Business That Works. Her latest ebook, How To Become a Social Media Ninja; 101 Ways to Dominate Your Competition Online was released in 2012.
A downline distributor is a recruited distributor from whom the sponsor (the one who recruited them) gains commissions. Every compensation plan involves recruiting other distributors to help sell the company’s product. Some compensation plans provide higher commissions for recruiting successful distributors (quality over quantity). Other plans only focus on simply hiring more distributors (quantity over quality). Overall, downline distributors help sponsors gain extra commissions.

Use a tool. You should not be explaining everything about your opportunity or whatever it is you have to sell over the phone, point them to a video, sizzle call, event in their area, anything but you try to explain it all over the phone. You can say “The first step to see if this is even a fit for you is to watch our short overview video at ________________”


But the truth is, an MLM lead purchase is NOT a purchase, but an investment in your business. One good MLM lead can produce tens of thousands of dollars in volume and revenues. If you understand that, then the pricing should not be as important as the quality and training of the Network marketing lead company. And of course, REPUTATION had a lot to do with the selection as well. Some companies that came across really well, when checked on, did not have a very good reputation for MLM Leads and service.
Yes, with Network Marketing or MLM, you will earn from everybody’s effort down the line into an infinite extent. This means that your outcome, being alone, as a single human being, who has a limited capability within the 24 hours period (the only time avialable to all of us), will not be confined within the limit of your own limitations, but by the potentials of unlimited extent of people, whom you no longer know and care about, who are all doing their stuff everyday for their own benefit. 

We are committed to providing quality prospects for your business at the highest level of reliability and integrity! Customer satisfaction is extremely important to us, which is why you can contact live support either by phone or online, whichever is more convenient to you. We are number one in customer satisfaction because we want you to succeed! It's as simple as that!
For more information, John Oliver did a fantastic segment about the horrors of MLMs. The 2016 documentary, Betting on Zero, investigates the allegations that MLMs are nothing but legal pyramid schemes. This article also does a wonderful job of breaking down the reasons why MLMs are doomed to failure. I encourage anyone who is thinking about signing up for an MLM to watch these. 

Thoroughly enjoyed reading your mlm breakdowns and the comments, thank you Jeremy. Had a successful mlm business but had to make a decision to give it up or have a breakdown due to ongoing upline bullying so at a big crossroads at the minute. being an ‘older’ lady here in the north of England doesn’t bode well for conventional job hunting in the current economic climate so some serious thinking needed on my part and QUICKLY lol. Thanks again Jeremy x
The structure of MLMs is very similar to a pyramid scheme. This doesn’t mean that all MLMs are pyramid schemes, but some certainly are. Those interested in pursuing a career in multi-level marketing should do research before joining a particular MLM. Generally speaking, if the bulk of the money you stand to earn comes from recruitment rather than direct sales, it’s wise to be very cautious.
With the advent of internet marketing has come a whole new science of selling online making the acquisition of those elusive network marketing leads just a little bit easier. Easy access to the internet for both the marketer and, much more importantly, their potential customers, has forced a whole new set of ideas to the forefront. Here are just a few of the options that are now available.

To really understand the beauty of MLM, everyone must understand the fact that as a human being, we all have potentials as well as limitations. No matter how much we’ve reached and used our individual potential, our outcome or whatever result we may be able to produce in a period of 24 hours (if we no longer sleep which is impossible) is still limited based on our individual capability being alone. As they said, “two is always better than one.” Is it “two heads are better that one?” I am not really sure but I know you get my point.


We are Not a Network Marketing Company, but are the Largest Lead Vendor to the Network Marketing Industry.  We are your one-stop-shop for the best Home Based Business and MLM leads! We provide our customers with the freshest, up-to-date leads and information in order to help you and your business succeed. All of our leads are highly qualified individuals that are interested in getting involved with a home based business. If you’re looking to expand your business, we’ve got the leads and information you need! Our company is dedicated to supplying you and your business with the best leads possible! We understand you need a reliable and credible lead source and that’s why we’re here!
If you have decided that your current methods of lead generation aren’t providing you with the results that you need for optimal success with your business, why not consider trying out FII-Inc and discovering what our services can offer towards the lead generation for your business? Already trusted and acclaimed by many clients, our services have helped to fill in the gaps in service that many small businesses and new business owners simply aren’t able to provide on their own. At Fll-Inc, we understand that lead generation can be a large and demanding responsibility – which is why we take care of it for you.
Walter J. Carl stated in a 2004 Western Journal of Communication article that "MLM organizations have been described by some as cults (Butterfield, 1985),[51] pyramid schemes (Fitzpatrick & Reynolds, 1997),[52] or organizations rife with misleading, deceptive, and unethical behavior (Carter, 1999),[53] such as the questionable use of evangelical discourse to promote the business (Höpfl & Maddrell, 1996),[54] and the exploitation of personal relationships for financial gain (Fitzpatrick & Reynolds, 1997)".[52][55] In China, volunteers working to rescue people from the schemes have been physically attacked.[56]
MLM companies have been trying to find ways around China's prohibitions, or have been developing other methods, such as direct sales, to take their products to China through retail operations. The Direct Sales Regulations limit direct selling to cosmetics, health food, sanitary products, bodybuilding equipment and kitchen utensils. And the Regulations require Chinese or foreign companies ("FIEs") who intend to engage into direct sale business in mainland China to apply for and obtain direct selling license from the Ministry of Commerce ("MOFCOM").[63] In 2016, there are 73 companies, including domestic and foreign companies, that have obtained the direct selling license.[64] Some multi-level marketing sellers have circumvented this ban by establishing addresses and bank accounts in Hong Kong, where the practice is legal, while selling and recruiting on the mainland.[10][65]

Your very own leads administration panel, so that you can access your mlm leads online from any location, any time. You have the ability to pause your mlm leads, set a max leads per day and adjust later if you wish, update billing information, order more mlm leads, export leads to your computer via csv or excel, and much more. You may also check out our business resources page.
In an October 15, 2010 article, it was stated that documents of a MLM called Fortune Hi-Tech Marketing reveal that 30 percent of its representatives make no money and that 54 percent of the remaining 70 percent only make $93 a month, before costs. Fortune was under investigation by the Attorneys General of Texas, Kentucky, North Dakota, and North Carolina with Missouri, South Carolina, Illinois, and Florida following up complaints against the company.[39] The FTC eventually stated that Fortune Hi-Tech Marketing was a pyramid scheme and that checks totaling more than $3.7 million were being mailed to the victims.[40]
The support factor was key. Once the MLM leads were purchased, was there somehow support in case of need? The support should be somehow resolving issues that arise, including bad mlm leads, wrong numbers or emails, and general problems. The MLM Leads companies we found that were the best, had a support system. And some type of guarantee also should be part of the network marketing lead program.
Multi-level marketing companies are not required to release information about the average income of distributors in the United States. However, some MLMs do release this information in what is called an income disclosure statement. If you would like to see the amount of income gained by distributors on average for a specific MLM, search the company’s name in Google + “income disclosure statement.”
Once you’ve made your connections, presented your opportunity, validated you and your company, ask for the sale! So many opportunities are missed simply because a person was too busy connecting and chatting, instead of asking for the business. You are looking for serious people to join and become a part of your team, don’t forget to ask. The experience and hands on training you get by just getting on the phone and making calls, is priceless. The more you are calling leads, the better you will become.
Getting leads is just one step in the sales cycle. Next, you need to qualify them to determine if they're a good fit, then make your pitch, and finally, follow up. Many network marketers don't like the sales process, but it doesn't have to be hard or scary, especially if you start with leads who've come to you specifically to know about what you offer.
I see Melaleuca on here. I see that as both good and bad. They are an awesome company with a great compensation plan. However, they are not an MLM. They are not even listed with the federal agency that oversees those companies. They are a Consumer Direct Marketing company. How does that differ? While I am required to purchase a certain amount each month, that’s all I need to purchase. It’s all products I use in my own home for myself. I don’t have a monthly quota to meet. I don’t have to buy product and sell it to people. The idea is that the product goes to the consumer only. In fact, it’s against company policy to buy product and sell it to others. The only comparison I see are the “levels” of customerS in my group. Can you shed any light on why you think they are an MLM? Thanks, so much!

If you insist on trying one of these MLM offers, the least you can do is look for proper business registration with BBB, toll free number, and proper address (no Post Office box). Also, you will need lots of family and friends to make it work. As a final step, check the MLM materials for one or more of these "red flags" that are associated with the worst of the offerings:
Hey Erica, I’m a doterra gal also. Just over 3 years ago I just wanted to see if these hippie oils really worked from there I couldn’t keep my mouth shut and I share with whomever will listen. I recently read this in the leadership magazine and I love it. “An oil for every household, a drop to change a life”. That is my goal. I never plan to get rich off my sharing but if I can change a life, help someone along the way it will be worth my time.

Rather than focusing solely on the technical aspects of how the best MLM leads are generated , we are able to dramatically improve overall conversion rates and quality of network marketing leads by adjusting the entire opt-in process through the eyes of your prospects. Our job is to understand what your prospects want and to help them get it. We believe technology and design should follow people, not the other way around.
If you want to learn about the wonderful (and massive) world of internet marketing from the pros, Digital Altitude is where it’s at. Their products might cost up to $10k+, but you’re getting access to a toolbox of pure gold. Then there’s their commission rate…up to 60%. Just take a second to think about what a 60% commission rate on a $10k+ product looks like. Not bad, huh?
I think when you made comments about a company you should have kept them neutral or not only commented part of a story. Ambit did have a lawsuit, but it also has several JD Power awards, A+BBB, and many other accolades. I don’t know details of the suit, it may have been 100% justified, but I do know lawsuits are not always justified. Sometimes people are looking to make a buck
Below is a screen shot of a program called Zennoa which l reviewed and was in the pre-launch stage. Google did not even know that program exists and ANY website could have ranked for that search term. There is really no point in wasting valuable time flogging dead horses. There is no need for another review of Empower Network, Vemma or those MLM ancestors … LOL.
The overwhelming majority of MLM participants (most sources estimated to be over 99.25% of all MLM distributors) participate at either an insignificant or nil net profit.[12] Indeed, the largest proportion of participants must operate at a net loss (after expenses are deducted) so that the few individuals in the uppermost level of the MLM pyramid can derive their significant earnings. Said earnings are then emphasized by the MLM company to all other participants to encourage their continued participation at a continuing financial loss.[13]
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